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Aviation

Sayali Meshram X D State Board 2008-2009

The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, in a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers. Great progress was made in the field of Aviation during the 1920s and 1930s such as Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight in 1927 and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3 which became the first airliner that was profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passengers' airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available.

Tean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Subsequent early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability.

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely-used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other planes, at the time. Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their government and heavily protected from competition. Since then, open skies agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. On June 21, 2004, Spaceship One became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the the possibility of aviation market outside the earth�s atmosphere. Meanwhile, flying prototypes of aircraft powered by alternative fuels, such as ethanol, electricity and even solar energy, are becoming more common and may soon enter the mainstream, at least for light aircraft.

General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang-gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting. Many small aircraft manufacturers including Cessana, Piper, Diamond, Mooney, Cirrus Design, Raytheon and others serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training.

Yuri Gagarin was the first human to travel to space on April 12, 1961, while Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon on July 21, 1969. Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.

By
Sayali Meshram
X D 2008-2009
State Board
St. Xavier's High School,
MIDC, Hingna, Nagpur.